- The Vatican, one of the "micro-states" (Photo: Notat)
Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican are the Micro states of Europe.
- Andorra is a member of the Council of Europe and participates in the EU customs union without being member of the EU.
- Liechtenstein is member of the EEA and EFTA.
- Monaco does not have a special agreement, but is an active, although not officially recognised (de facto), member of the customs union.
- San Marino is also an active, although not officially recognised (de facto), member of the customs union.
- The Vatican is not a part of the EU customs union and receives export refunds when butter is sold from the rest of Italy to the Papacy.