Article 12 TEC forbids any discrimination on the grounds of nationality (Photo: European Commission)


Article 8 TFEU in the Lisbon Treaty forbids any discrimination between men and woman and provides that the EU shall promote “equality”,

Article 10 TFEU allows actions to combat discrimination "based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation".

Article 18 forbids any discrimination based on nationality.

All Treaty Articles are supported by due rights for citizens in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Discrimination is forbidden by Article 21 and 22 in the Charter.

On these matters the Council decides by unanimity.

Incentive measures can be decided by qualified majority vote in the Council and co-decision with the European Parliament through the ordinary legislative procedure, see Article 19 TFEU.

A special EU agency in Vienna looks at breaches of human rights in member states.


Ireland and Malta have special opt-outs (derogations) on abortion.