Area of Freedom, Security and Justice
Enshrined in the treaties as a headline for Justice and Home Affairs. Relates to judicial/police cooperation in criminal matters, judicial cooperation in civil matters, visa, immigration and border control policies.
The areas of asylum, visa, immigration and border controls had been inserted into the Treaty Establishing the European Community (TEC) by the Treaty of Amsterdam.
Between that and the Treaty of Lisbon judicial and police cooperation in criminal matters was regarded as third, "intergovernmental", EU pillar.
The Lisbon Treaty inserted this area into what was the Treaty Establishing the European Community (TEC), which was then renamed as the "Treaty on the Functioning of the Union" (TFEU). This brought police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters within the ambit of the EU's communitarian and supranational (i.e. federalised) legal order.
Denmark, the UK and Ireland have derogations from this area. The majority in the Danish Parliament wish to change the Danish opt-out into an opt-in arrangement where Denmark would participate in all legal cooperation except on immigration policy.